白宫版开心农场

一年之计在于春,在这个春耕播种的时节,不少人已经开始为自己的菜园子忙活起来,连美国第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马也不例外。这不,她又在白宫与华盛顿当地小学校的孩子们一起,开垦土地、播种果蔬了。

这是米歇尔·奥巴马在白宫里开垦有机菜园、引领“菜园时尚”的第三个年头。2009年,奥巴马夫妇入主白宫后的第一个春天,米歇尔·奥巴马将白宫的南草坪改造成了现实版的开心农场——一个菜园。这也是自二战后白宫首次开辟菜园。在1943年第二次世界大战期间,时任美国总统富兰克林·罗斯福的夫人埃莉诺·罗斯福就曾在白宫开垦“胜利花园”,号召民众在自家花园里种菜渡过战争难关。今天,白宫菜园的一些蔬菜种子由蒙蒂塞洛菜园捐赠,这个菜园是热爱园艺的美国第三任总统——托马斯·杰斐逊留下的[1]

白宫菜园一开始有102平方米,在2010年时扩大到139平方米。这个最初只花了约200美元建立的菜园,第一年的农产品的产量已经超过了450公斤,并且每年都有增加。菜园里收获的果蔬不仅会端上美国第一家庭的餐桌,也是招待贵宾、筹办晚宴的重要食材。菜园收获的其余部分则用于慈善事业。

说到这里,有些人可能会对白宫菜园里都种了些什么很感兴趣。我们就先来聊聊这些可爱的植物们吧!根据白宫官方网站提供的一张菜园地图[2],可以看到其中种的蔬果有不下55种,包括一些绿叶蔬菜如:菠菜、生菜、莴苣、西兰花、韭菜,其他的蔬菜还有:豌豆、甜菜、胡萝卜、洋葱、蓝莓,还有调味用料及香料如:葱、大蒜、香菜、百里香、莳萝、香草,另外有一些草药和景观植物如:甘菊、牛膝草、金盏花、金莲花、马郁兰、覆盆子等,可谓是应有尽有。除了种类繁多的植物外,白宫菜园里还养蜂,这也是白宫历史上第一个蜂巢,蜜蜂不仅维持了良好的生态系统,也提供了新鲜的蜂蜜,每年的蜂蜜产量足足有60公斤,用于白宫厨房和馈赠。

每种蔬果中都分别包含不同的营养价值:西兰花是个完美的食物,它是蛋白质及钙、铁、镁、磷、钾和锰的良好来源,它富含膳食纤维、B族维生素、维生素A、C​​、E、K和叶酸。西兰花里的膳食纤维成分使得胆汁酸更易排出,这样就降低了体内的胆固醇水平。西兰花可以改善维生素D缺乏,它其中富含的维生素K和维生素A有助于维持维生素D代谢的平衡。它还对肝脏的解毒系统有促进作用。 西兰花富含一种名为类黄酮山萘酚的物质,最近的研究表明,山奈酚可以减轻过敏反应,这也有助于解释西兰花独特的抗炎效果。

菠菜富含营养成分,其中叶酸、β-胡萝卜素、铁和维生素K的含量很高,同时也包括了膳食纤维、蛋白质和烟酸。它饱和脂肪和胆固醇的含量很低,菠菜还提供钙、镁和锌等矿物元素。食用时应该购买本地的新鲜菠菜,因为它不能存放太久,路途、储存及较高的温度会导致其中营养物质的流失。

生菜同其他绿叶蔬菜一样,也富含膳食纤维、维生素A、维生素C、维生素K叶酸及锰、钾等矿物元素。维生素A和维生素C的高含量提供了有益的抗氧化作用,它们能中和自由基,防止其损害细胞和器官从而造成身体的各种麻烦。大量研究表明抗氧化剂有抗癌的效果,同时也可以预防冠心病。同时生菜中富含的叶酸能够降低同型半胱氨酸,这也降低了心脏病的风险。生菜中的钾目前已被证实可以降低血压,这也有助于预防心脏病和中风。生菜的膳食纤维有助于促进肠道蠕动,保持肠道内环境的稳定和健康。

甜菜中含有丰富的抗氧化剂,这可以预防癌症的发生。抗氧化剂还有助于保持眼睛和神经系统的健康。甜菜也参与到体内的解毒过程中,赋予甜菜红色的甜菜碱能够促进毒素从尿液中排出。甜菜也富含膳食纤维,这可以降低患结肠癌的风险。甜菜还具有利尿的作用。

正因为各种蔬菜所含的营养不尽相同,所以在饮食中应将各种蔬果搭配起来吃,这样才能获得更全面的营养。

另外,关于白宫菜园的很多秘密将在明年四月份揭晓,也就是白宫菜园建立3周年零1个月的时候,到那时米歇尔·奥巴马将出版她的第一本书,在这本书里,奥巴马夫人会与美国及世界上其他地区的人们分享她的种菜心得、健康饮食观念和第一家庭喜爱的健康食谱,同时人们对菜园的各种疑问也会在这本书里得到解答,比如:为什么种菜?怎么在自己家或社区里种菜等。售书所得款项将用于慈善事业。

不只是作秀的“秀”

说起在白宫开展园艺的缘由,奥巴马夫人说,她以前从没种过菜,作为两个女儿——玛丽亚和萨莎——的母亲,她总是尽可能地让孩子们吃好,但是每周出去吃三顿饭、动不动就订匹萨外卖、午餐用三明治对付过去、晚餐再来一顿饕餮的饮食方式让孩子们的体重迅速增加,直到儿科医生提醒她需要考虑一下孩子们的营养问题时,她才意识到问题的严重性[3]

白宫菜园除了能提供新鲜美味的蔬菜之外,也是当地小学校的一个教育基地。在今年第三届的春季播种活动上,奥巴马夫人邀请了二十多位来自班克罗夫特和杜伯曼小学四五年级孩子和他们的家长们。当问及孩子们最喜欢吃什么蔬菜时,奥巴马夫人透露西兰花是她和她的女儿们的最爱,而总统则不喜欢吃甜菜。

“但是没关系,我们的菜园里每种植物都是平等的,”她补充说。

当奥巴马夫人和孩子们一起将菜种到土壤中时,她跟孩子们说,“当我们种下这些植物后,它们就开始生长,等它们成熟后,我们就能直接品尝了,这真的很有趣的,你要不要和我一起尝尝韭菜?”

在奥巴马夫人、家长及白宫工作人员的帮助下,孩子们自己动手松土、播种、灌溉和认识各种蔬菜。奥巴马夫人对孩子们强调,“家长和家庭中的其他成员要能了解到你们学到的东西,我们需要将这个信息传递下去,尤其是你在回到家时,让爸爸妈妈、爷爷奶奶为自己做蔬菜吃,尝尝新的东西,家长有时候不给你们做是因为他们觉得你们不会吃,那现在你要回家告诉他们,你已经尝试过这些新东西了。”

同时奥巴马夫人也邀请了多家媒体拍摄和采访这次白宫播种活动,因此这项活动同前两年的活动一样,得到了媒体和社会上的广泛关注。如果留意奥巴马夫人每年的春季种菜活动,能察觉出其中一些细微的差别,比如今年奥巴马夫人的动作显得更为娴熟自然,少了几分去年作秀的成分,她也脱去了去年在播种时所带的专业种植手套,身着一袭黑色衣裤轻松上阵,显得既干练又不失时尚。一年的经历使得奥巴马夫人更加自信,而奥巴马夫人也因此获得了高达71%的“好感率”,这甚至比她的丈夫奥巴马总统还要高。

然而这种在白宫种菜的型式,其目的不是“作秀”以提高民众的好感,也不是仅仅作为当地小学校的教育基地而已。因为在这样一个瞩目的地点(白宫)由瞩目的人物(奥巴马夫人)建立起的菜园,它的意义和影响绝非仅局限于此。将“菜园”与“白宫”、“第一夫人”这一的字眼联系在一起,它本身就是一个极为吸引眼球的话题,在其中所倡导的种菜和对健康食物追求的会引发人们更多的思考。邀请来到白宫种菜的孩子们也不是“作秀”,在孩子们与绿色菜园的亲密接触的过程中,他们亲身体会到果蔬、生态系统和健康饮食的重要,同时,孩子们在田地里的劳动也能影响他们的父母和家庭,进而促进整个社会建立健康饮食的观念。

实际上,今年的白宫种菜活动也是由奥巴马夫人发起的“行动起来”(Let’s move!)行动的一部分,这个活动是一个全国性的倡议,始于去年2月份,它旨在使这一代的孩子们在成长的初期建立健康的生活方式、帮助家长们为孩子的饮食作出健康的选择、改善学校的食品质量、保证每个家庭都能更容易地获取健康且廉价的食物、增加孩子们的锻炼。白宫菜园活动目标直指儿童肥胖,奥巴马夫人说:“整个一代人的身体和心理健康,以及国家的经济和安全都受到了威胁,”“这不是那种可以一夜之间就解决的问题,但大家一起努力,它是可以解决的。因此,让我们的行动起来。”她说,“作为第一夫人,这不仅是我的政策议题,更是一种激情。这是我的使命。我决心与这个国家的人们一道,改变这一代的孩子对食物营养和锻炼的看法。”

此项行动是奥巴马夫人的大手笔。“行动起来”活动吸引了来自内阁包括农业部长维尔萨克、教育部长邓肯、劳动部长索利斯及内政部长萨拉萨尔等人的加入,同时参与进来的还有一些国会议员、市长以及来自媒体、医疗、体育、娱乐及商界的领军人物。它是一场全面、有协作的和以社区为主导的活动,从各个方面为减少儿童的肥胖做努力,这将促进政府、医学、商业、教育、社区组织的领导人产生更多的合作,借助政府、公共及个人的力量共同对付肥胖问题。

当肥胖威胁到寿命

众所周知,肥胖在发达国家和地区是个普遍且严峻的问题,每天以汉堡、匹萨等高热量食品为主食的美国人,尤其饱受肥胖困扰。美国的肥胖率排名位居世界前列,有七成以上 的美国人面临着肥胖或超重。根据美国疾病预防控制中心(CDC)的统计数字,2007年成年人的肥胖率是26.6%,2-19岁儿童的肥胖率是16.9%; 2007至2009年间,全美新增了两百四十万肥胖患者,肥胖率增加了1.1%,照这个速度发展下去,到2050年,几乎百分之百的美国人都是超重的大胖子!

而我国肥胖的情况也不容乐观,根据《中国居民营养与健康状况调查报告》[4],2002年我国成人肥胖与超重人群占29.9%,较1992年的调查结果有大幅度上升。儿童的情况与成人类似,在二十多年前,即便是大城市的孩子,也几乎看不到有肥胖的,从90年代开始,超重比率大幅度上升,其中男孩快于女孩,城市快于农村,十几年间儿童和青少年的超重率增加了28倍,肥胖率增加了4倍,北京上海等发达城市中儿童的肥胖率已经达到了中等发达国家的水平[5],肥胖问题也逐渐成为中国公共卫生与医疗健康领域新的挑战。

胖了以后不仅给个人形象带来压力,更重要的是,多余的脂肪会对健康造成威胁。肥胖使人患糖尿病、冠心病、高血压、脑卒中及一些肿瘤的几率大大增加。20至44岁的肥胖者与一般人相比,患2型糖尿病的风险增加了3-4倍,患高血压的风险增加了5-6倍。肥胖者也更容易患结肠癌、乳腺癌、前列腺癌、子宫内膜癌及胰腺癌等恶性肿瘤。

肥胖除了会引起糖尿病、冠心病、癌症等疾病导致死亡率增加之外,还会给身体带来其他的麻烦,影响到呼吸、消化、行走、睡眠和生育等诸多方面。比如肥胖所致的上气道狭窄可引起阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征,得了这种病在睡觉时经常打鼾,有时还会从睡梦中憋醒,不仅夜间睡眠质量下降,白天也昏昏沉沉、注意力难以集中;腿部过度负重则使肥胖者更容易得骨关节炎,造成的膝盖疼痛和畸形会直接影响到行走;多囊卵巢综合征的患者常常伴有肥胖,而这种病会导致不孕;若肥胖的妈妈怀上了宝宝,那么妈妈和宝宝所面临的妊娠期糖尿病、妊娠期高血压、难产、剖宫产和感染的风险会比一般人高。此外肥胖者更容易得脂肪肝、胆结石、返流性食管炎、心脏衰竭和血栓性疾病等,他们动手术的风险和手术后并发症也会增加[6]

不仅如此,肥胖带来的健康危害也绝非仅是是身体上的,它还会引起心理或精神层次的问题。肥胖者更容易受到来自社会的偏见和歧视,他们患抑郁症的风险也比普通人高。

在这些肥胖引起的健康危害中,儿童肥胖则更令人堪忧。随着快餐广告轰炸式的传播,现在的孩子,尤其是生活在大中型城市里的孩子们,在学英语之前就已经认识麦当劳、肯德基了。他们沉浸于电视、电脑屏幕之前,着迷于各种电子产品,对于他们来说,儿时的游戏已经不再是丢沙包、跳房子、掷纸飞机和跳皮筋,网络、手机、iPad成为他们不可或缺的玩伴。再加上繁重的课业负担,孩子们享受运动的时光越来越少。

肥胖对儿童的危害会比对成年人更严重和持久,一些到成年甚至老年才会得的病,现在已经逐渐蔓延到肥胖儿童身上,他们在生命的早期就更易罹患哮喘、睡眠呼吸暂停、胰岛素抵抗、2型糖尿病、高脂血症、脂肪肝、高血压和代谢综合征等[7]。而且在成长阶段出现的肥胖,更会引发孩子的诸如饮食失调、抑郁症迹象、自卑、社会关系孤立、在学校的表现不佳等行为问题。

看到这里,可能一些人已经开始忧心忡忡,我们都渴望健康,却没意识到平日里看似稀松平常的一些习惯,正在扼杀我们的健康和寿命。那么肥胖问题又是怎样造成的呢?

胖子们梦想穿越回唐朝,回到那个以胖为美的时光里,这样就可以和丰肥浓丽的玉环姐姐一争高下。从前的人们并不认为胖是件坏事情,因为在物质贫瘠、生产力还不发达的年代,能把多余的能量储存起来,本身就是一种进化上的优势,这样的人就不太可能在食物短缺时饿死。于是,我们的基因把远古生活方式的记忆带到了现在,却没料到这是一个天翻地覆的时代,当人类不用再为吃了上顿没下顿发愁时,当人类用坐在电脑前的脑力劳动代替了狩猎耕种的体力劳动时,原本对我们有利的基因刹那间成为肥胖的元凶之一。

若是抓到某个特定的基因凶手,问题就好办得多,但现在发现有300多个犯罪嫌疑基因参与到人类体重的塑成过程中,是这些基因的合谋导致了肥胖。这些基因的个性也不尽相同:极少数基因突变后变得非常饥渴且能力超群(比如瘦素、黑素皮质素受体-4),即便没有形成肥胖的环境,人也会不自觉地胖起来。然而枪打出头鸟,更多普通、温和且低调的基因突变才是参与多数人肥胖的因素,而且这些基因本身并不能促成肥胖,必须要有两位环境因素的帮凶联手才可以,这两位帮凶就是大名鼎鼎的——多吃和不动。

环境因素在肥胖的发生方面起了很大的作用。很明显,脂肪不是从天上掉下来的,而是一点点地吃进去、消耗不掉遂堆积在我们身体内的。这已经是人所众知的事实:缺乏锻炼、久坐的生活方式、高热量的饮食是滋生肥胖的温床。可生活习惯一旦养成就很难撼动,更何况已经过惯了这种每天进门电梯、 出门开车、电脑前一坐一上午的安逸生活,天天在电视广告里看到各种令人垂涎三尺的美食,不受诱惑难,一直不受诱惑更是难上加难!在生活中真正有毅力去抵制这些诱惑的人是少数,是整个社会的大环境促成了肥胖的流行。

菜园子挑战肥胖难题

我们都知道减肥很难。世界各国的医生、营养师和肥胖患者为此绞尽脑汁。刚才我们已经了解到,肥胖的成因除了基因的影响之外,环境在这里成了至关重要的砝码。是城市的生活节奏和饮食习惯造就了数目众多的肥胖者,也正因为如此,奥巴马夫人的菜园子才有了更加不平凡的意义。她所做出的一系列努力让白宫的一个小菜园带动了全国小学校和家庭里的菜篮子。因此来自纽约大学的营养学教授、同时也是《食品政治》一书的作者Marion Nestle评论道,“这一活动是第一次将食品问题合理性的话题提到了政府管理水平这一新的高度,仅仅是进行这项活动就足以对儿童肥胖这一社会问题产生巨大的正面影响。”

一方面,奥巴马夫人组织了对适龄儿童的父母进行健康饮食相关方面的知识培训,帮助父母在孩子的膳食方面做出健康的选择。同时与食品制造商及零售商合作,将食物的营养成分清晰地印在食品的包装袋上,这样父母在为孩子们选购食品的时候,可以获得更加清楚明了的食品健康信息。美国儿科协会也会定期监测儿童的肥胖指数,为家长提供饮食健康的咨询。为了帮助人们对食物做出更健康的选择,美国农业部已经将膳食结构重新调整,新一代的食物金字塔已经诞生, MyPyramid.gov是在联邦政府网站下最受欢迎的一个站点,这个在线交互的网站可以帮助人们更好地实施这个新的膳食指南。

与此同时,奥巴马夫人致力于改善学校的食品质量。随着美国超过31万的儿童参加了全国学校午餐计划和1100多万的学生参与了全国在校早餐计划,在学校建立良好的营养环境比以往显得更加重要。政府重新审批了儿童营养法,同时计划在10年内再添100亿美元的投资,以提高全国在校午餐和早餐计划的质量、增加参与学生的数目、确保学校有足够的资源做出必要的调整,包括对学校食品提供者的培训、提升厨房设备等。通过这项投资,学校食堂里将为学生提供更多的水果、蔬菜、全谷类和低脂奶制品。

菜园:城市里的微旅行

美国白宫的菜园行动正在积极开展着,对于国内的我们来说,白宫菜园也具有很大启示意义。其实种菜本身就是一种实现减肥和健康生活方式的途径。在菜园里的劳作就避免了静坐的生活方式,有更多的时间呼吸新鲜空气,接触阳光;菜园也增进了与自然的亲近感,都市生活将人与自然隔离,在城市里生活的孩子和成人,可能少有人知道豌豆、韭菜等是怎么长出来的,菜园帮助人增进了对健康食物的熟悉与亲切感;奥巴马夫人的这项运动也让我们重新思考我们需要的什么样的食物,菜园可以为全家提供健康、新鲜、有营养的食物,尤其是在食品卫生堪忧的今天,在自家菜园里随手摘一把新鲜蔬菜,加上简单的烹调,就是一盘美味健康的菜肴,不仅降低了食物的开支,更重要的是,这种和家人一起分享自己劳动成果的喜悦和满足感,是任何餐厅都不能比拟的;同时,有了爱好就会寻找同类,几位种菜爱好者们聚在一起,又会结识新的朋友,这样形成的社会团体也有助于减肥和维持健康的生活方式。如果你有幸拥有一个这样的菜园,不妨把每次在菜园的经历当做一次微旅行——它会带给你丰富的体验与非凡的收获。

在以前,自家的菜园似乎是每个家庭的标准配置,那时人们都喜欢在自家院里种些瓜果蔬菜。随着大中型城市人口的膨胀,平房院落被高层住宅取代,菜园土壤被公共绿地取代。现代建筑的鼻祖——柯布西耶——这位建筑大师在九十多年前提出现代建筑的雏形时就已经预见到这个问题,如果高楼住宅占据了原先花园的位置,那么就应该在屋顶建立花园,可以种上高低错落的灌木和小乔木,以弥补因钢筋水泥所牺牲的绿色空间,当初建筑师设想这将成为整栋楼里最受欢迎的地方,“屋顶花园”也被视为新建筑的五个特征之一,但可惜这样的设计理念并未体现在现在的城市建筑里,反倒是个体的生存空间愈显局促。

对健康生活的追求应当是每个人的权利,美国年轻一代已经有些人开始回归田园,追求自己的“农民梦”,他们既崇尚传统的务农方式也标榜朋克摇滚,用自己的农场提供健康可以信赖的食物。对新鲜蔬菜和健康生活极度渴望的人们仍旧在行动着。最近在城市周围兴起了一些现实版“开心农场”吸引了很多都市人,他们在这里租下“自留地”,可以自行设计菜园和选择种植的蔬菜品种,既能体验田园生活,收获的新鲜蔬果吃起来也放心,还可以和家人朋友一起分享采摘的喜悦,它已经成为都市人对追求健康生活的一种表达。还有不少人在自家的阳台上开辟了阳台菜园,体验蔬果带来的美好,体验自给自足的乐趣。即便小小阳台比不上陶渊明的“采菊东篱下,悠然见南山”, 但有这样一片绿色空间供你体会宁静独处和与人相处,也乃人生一大幸事!


[1] http://www.agweb.com/article/veggies_on_the_south_lawn/

[2] http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/09/03/20/Spring-Gardening/

[3] http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/20/dining/20garden.html

[4] 王陇德, 主编. 中国居民营养与健康状况调查报告之一.综合报告.第1版.北京:人民卫生出版社,2005

[5] 季成叶,孙军玲,陈天娇.中国学龄儿童青少年1985~2000年超重、肥胖流行趋势动态分析.中华流行病学杂志. 2004年 02期

[6] http://qjmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/99/9/565.full

[7] Kliegman: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th ed.

(本文已发表于东方早报《身体》周刊,有删改)

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医学博士,前神经科医生,用脑袋修理过脑袋。于宁静独处和与人交往中探索自己,欲在文字与视觉中发掘真趣,AI与Processing长成中…

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